Oral surgery refers to intra-oral operations that can be performed in the dentist’s chair, such as wisdom tooth extraction, transplanting teeth, removal of root apex or a cyst, lip and lingual frenectomy surgery.
Extraction of an impacted wisdom tooth
Humans have usually four wisdom teeth that are the posterior molars in the upper and lower jaw and complete formation in adulthood. The period of erupting of wisdom teeth is very individual. They generally appear between the ages of 17 and 25, for some much later and for some they do not break through the jaw and soft tissues at all. In over 75% of people wisdom teeth do not fit on the line of occlusion, 90% of people has at least one partially erupted or an impacted wisdom tooth that may cause problems in the future. Read more.
Tooth transplantation is a possible method of replacing untreatable teeth in a biological way. Wisdom teeth and premolars are considered good tooth transplants, especially those that are impacted (unerupted) and where the root apex/apexes have not yet fully formed. Teeth with fully developed root apexes are also suitable, but they have virtually no chance of remaining vital and in this case root canal treatment is mandatory.
Recommendations for patients regarding oral surgery
Before the surgical procedure
- The patient must inform the treating doctor of any general medical conditions he/she is suffering from, any medication he/she is taking and of a possible pregnancy.
- On the day of the surgical procedure or operation, the patient must continue to take the medications prescribed by another specialist according to the prescribed schedule. If you are suffering from high blood pressure, make sure you do not forget to take the prescribed medication!
- Patients with oncological and haematological diseases must consult their specialist doctor / family doctor before the operation and must receive treatment if necessary. If you are taking blood thinners (e.g. Marevan, Plavix, Xarelto or others), please consult with your family doctor about the use of these medicines and inform your family doctor that you are having a surgical procedure.
- If you are in pain the day before the procedure, please take only paracetamol as a painkiller, if possible, as it does not increase the risk of bleeding both during the procedure and after the operation. Avoid taking aspirin and ibuprofen as these medicines can facilitate bleeding.
- When you come to the clinic for the procedure, do not dress too warmly to avoid feeling hot and uncomfortable during the procedure.
After oral surgery, tooth extraction or tooth transplantation
Your wound will heal better if you follow these recommendations.
Bite on the gauze swab placed into your mouth and keep it on the wound for 20–30 minutes.
Since there is a risk of bleeding for a week after the surgical intervention, avoid or at least reduce the following during this time:
- Physical exertion (lifting weights, bending forward).
- Visiting a sauna, taking a bath and using a tanning bed, sunbathing, rehabilitation procedures, air travel, long journeys by car.
- Avoid blowing your nose if the doctor said that there was an opening between the oral cavity and the sinus.
- Do not touch the wound with your finger, tongue or any object, do not suck on the wound. Do not put powders, tablets, drops (propolis, tea tree oil) on the wound as this may cause inflammation and bleeding.
- Chew with the other side of the mouth for a few days. Food should be rich in protein, vitamins and minerals and soft, lukewarm or cool. Avoid foods rich in carbohydrates. Harder foods can be eaten when eating them does not cause pain.
- Blood may seep from the wound area for 3–4 days after the operation. The wound will usually start bleeding more 2–3 hours after surgery, as anaesthesia wears off. If bleeding persists, place a sterile gauze swab on the wound for 30 minutes and press the jaws firmly together.
- Keeping an ice pack on the cheek area may reduce swelling.
- Under no circumstances should warm, moist compresses (chamomile, vodka compresses, etc.) be applied to the facial area, as this can cause bleeding and severe swelling.
Good oral hygiene prevents inflammation
Do not eat or drink for 2 hours after the surgery. Do not drink alcohol, hot drinks, strong coffee, energy drinks containing taurine and caffeine. Do not rinse your mouth on the day of the surgery. Later, it is necessary to rinse your mouth with an antiseptic solution of chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.1–0.2% or octenidine 2–4 times a day for 10–14 days, or with lukewarm saline solution (1 teaspoon of sea salt per 250 ml of warm water) after each meal if the wound is not bleeding.
Teeth need to be brushed thoroughly as usual but the wound area should be avoided. If plaque accumulates also on the mucous membrane of the wound and sutures, on the surface of the splint, a soft/extra soft toothbrush may be used to gently brush the area.
Pain and swelling following oral surgery
You may feel weaker or stronger pain as the anaesthetic wears off. Such soreness may persist for several days after the surgery. To reduce the pain, use over-the-counter painkillers unless your doctor has prescribed painkillers for you.
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